April 14, 2024

Kona Coffee Production: From Farm to Cup

6 min read
Kona Coffee Production: From Farm to Cup

Kona Coffee Production: From Farm to Cup

The Farm

Kona coffee is a world-renowned coffee variety that is grown exclusively in the Kona district of the Big Island of Hawaii. With its exotic flavor and aroma, Kona coffee is a coffee lover’s paradise. However, the process of producing this unique coffee is quite complex, requiring a great deal of attention and skill from the farmers. In this article, we will journey through the process of Kona coffee production, from farm to cup.

History of Kona Coffee

Kona coffee has been grown in Hawaii since the early 19th century when Samuel Reverend Ruggles first imported coffee plants from Guatemala. Over time, the geographical and climatic conditions of the Kona district proved perfect for growing coffee. Today, Kona coffee is known for its exceptional quality and prized by coffee connoisseurs all over the world.

Step 1: Harvesting

The first step in Kona coffee production is harvesting. The harvest season runs from August to January. The farmers inspect the trees every day to pick only the ripe cherries. Any cherries that are not ripe are left on the tree to mature further. The farmers must be careful when picking the cherries so as not to damage the tree or the unripe cherries that will be harvested later.

Step 2: Processing the Cherries

Once the cherries have been harvested, they are taken to a wet or dry processing facility. The wet process involves removing the pulp from the cherries using a depulper machine. The beans are then submerged in water and fermented for several hours to remove any remaining pulp. After fermentation, the beans are washed and then dried in the sun or with a mechanical dryer. The dry process involves laying the cherries out in the sun to dry for several weeks. The cherries are raked regularly to ensure even drying.

Step 3: Milling and Roasting

After the beans have been dried, they are ready for milling. This process involves removing the outer layer of the beans to reveal the green coffee bean inside. The green beans are then sorted by size, shape, and color. Once sorted, the beans are roasted to bring out their distinctive aroma and flavor. Roasting Kona coffee requires skill to ensure that the beans are not over or under-roasted, which can result in a poor-quality cup of coffee.

Step 4: Tasting and Grading

Once the beans have been roasted, they are ready for tasting and grading. A professional taster will evaluate the aroma, flavor, body, and acidity of the coffee. The taster will also evaluate the coffee using a grading system, known as the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) scale. Kona coffee that scores 80 points or above is considered specialty grade.

Step 5: Packaging and Distribution

Once the coffee has been graded and evaluated, it is packaged for distribution. Kona coffee is typically sold in whole bean form to maintain its freshness. The beans are packaged in airtight bags with a one-way valve that allows the coffee to degas while preventing oxygen from entering. The coffee is then distributed to local cafes, shops, and worldwide consumers who crave this unique coffee.


Producing Kona coffee is a labor-intensive process that requires a great deal of attention and skill from the farmers. From harvesting to roasting, each step in the process must be done with care and precision to ensure a premium cup of coffee. With its exceptional flavor and aroma, Kona coffee is truly a treasure of Hawaii. So the next time you indulge in a cup of Kona coffee, savor it and appreciate the hard work and dedication that went into producing it.

Kona Coffee Production: From Farm to Cup

Frequently Asked Questions

How does the climate of the Kona district contribute to the flavor of Kona coffee?

The Kona district of Hawaii is blessed with a unique microclimate characterized by sunny mornings, rainy or windy afternoons, and mild nights. This, combined with the rich volcanic soil, contributes to the slow growth of the coffee cherries, allowing them more time to develop their distinct flavor and aroma.

What is the difference between wet and dry processing of coffee cherries?

Wet processing involves removing the pulp from the cherries and fermenting the beans in water to remove any remaining pulp. The beans are then washed and dried. Dry processing, on the other hand, involves drying the whole cherries in the sun, then removing the dried pulp and skin. Each method imparts different characteristics to the final coffee product.

How does the roasting process affect the taste of Kona coffee?

The roasting process is crucial in bringing out the desired flavors of Kona coffee. It involves heating the green coffee beans at high temperatures, causing chemical changes that develop the beans’ complex flavor profile. The degree of roast – light, medium, or dark – can significantly affect the coffee’s taste, aroma, and acidity.

What does it mean when Kona coffee is graded as “specialty grade”?

When Kona coffee is graded as “specialty grade” according to the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) scale, it means that the coffee has met high standards of quality. This includes factors like the coffee’s aroma, flavor, body, and acidity. A score of 80 points or above on the SCAA scale is considered specialty grade.

Why is Kona coffee often sold in whole bean form?

Kona coffee is often sold in whole bean form to preserve its freshness and flavor. Once coffee beans are ground, they start to lose flavor due to exposure to air and moisture. By selling whole beans, producers ensure that the coffee retains its quality until the consumer is ready to grind and brew it.

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